In this second article based on my doctoral research, I examine how post-colonial bilateral ties and aggregate-levels of socioeconomic integration shape the geographic orientation and motivations of Pakistani immigrant nonprofit organizations in London and New York. I find the strong bilateral post-colonial ties between the UK and Pakistan generate symbolic and material resources which help explain the greater proportion of homeland-oriented transnational Pakistani organizations in London when compared to NYC. In contrast, the NYC Pakistani nonprofit sector reflects American traditions of assimilation and is largely comprised of religious organizations focusing on creating a sense of belonging for Pakistani immigrants in New York and US society more generally.
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